Model variables

The variable meta-data (i.e., all instances of veros.variables.Variable) are available in a dictionary as the attribute Veros.variables. The actual data arrays are added directly as attributes to Veros. The following code snippet (as commonly used in the Diagnostics) illustrates this behavior:

var_meta = {key: val for key, val in vs.variables.items() if val.time_dependent and val.output}
var_data = {key: getattr(veros, key) for key in var_meta.keys()}

In this case, var_meta is a dictionary containing all metadata for variables that are time dependent and should be added to the output, while var_data is a dictionary with the same keys containing the corresponding data arrays.

Variable class

class veros.variables.Variable(name, dims, units, long_description, dtype=None, output=False, time_dependent=True, scale=1.0, write_to_restart=False, extra_attributes=None)[source]

Available variables

There are two kinds of variables in Veros. Main variables are always present in a simulation, while conditional variables are only available if their respective condition is True at the time of variable allocation.

Attributes:
: Time-dependent
: Included in snapshot output by default
: Written to restart files by default

Main variables

Veros.dxt
Units:m
Dimensions:xt
Type:float
Attributes:

Zonal (x) spacing of T-grid point

Veros.dxu
Units:m
Dimensions:xu
Type:float
Attributes:

Zonal (x) spacing of U-grid point

Veros.dyt
Units:m
Dimensions:yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Meridional (y) spacing of T-grid point

Veros.dyu
Units:m
Dimensions:yu
Type:float
Attributes:

Meridional (y) spacing of U-grid point

Veros.zt
Units:m
Dimensions:zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Vertical coordinate

Veros.zw
Units:m
Dimensions:zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Vertical coordinate

Veros.dzt
Units:m
Dimensions:zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Vertical spacing

Veros.dzw
Units:m
Dimensions:zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Vertical spacing

Veros.cost
Units:1
Dimensions:yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Metric factor for spherical coordinates

Veros.cosu
Units:1
Dimensions:yu
Type:float
Attributes:

Metric factor for spherical coordinates

Veros.tantr
Units:1
Dimensions:yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Metric factor for spherical coordinates

Veros.coriolis_t
Units:1/s
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Coriolis frequency at T grid point

Veros.coriolis_h
Units:1/s
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Horizontal Coriolis frequency at T grid point

Veros.kbot
Units:
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:int
Attributes:

Index of the deepest grid cell (counting from 1, 0 means all land)

Veros.ht
Units:m
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Total depth of the water column

Veros.hu
Units:m
Dimensions:xu, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Total depth of the water column

Veros.hv
Units:m
Dimensions:xt, yu
Type:float
Attributes:

Total depth of the water column

Veros.hur
Units:m
Dimensions:xu, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Total depth of the water column (masked)

Veros.hvr
Units:m
Dimensions:xt, yu
Type:float
Attributes:

Total depth of the water column (masked)

Veros.beta
Units:1/(ms)
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Change of Coriolis frequency with latitude

Veros.area_t
Units:m^2
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Area of T-box

Veros.area_u
Units:m^2
Dimensions:xu, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Area of U-box

Veros.area_v
Units:m^2
Dimensions:xt, yu
Type:float
Attributes:

Area of V-box

Veros.maskT
Units:
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:int
Attributes:

Mask in physical space for tracer points

Veros.maskU
Units:
Dimensions:xu, yt, zt
Type:int
Attributes:

Mask in physical space for U points

Veros.maskV
Units:
Dimensions:xt, yu, zt
Type:int
Attributes:

Mask in physical space for V points

Veros.maskW
Units:
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:int
Attributes:

Mask in physical space for W points

Veros.maskZ
Units:
Dimensions:xu, yu, zt
Type:int
Attributes:

Mask in physical space for Zeta points

Veros.rho
Units:kg/m^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

In-situ density anomaly, relative to the surface mean value of 1024 kg/m^3

Veros.prho
Units:kg/m^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Potential density anomaly, relative to the surface mean value of 1024 kg/m^3 (equal to in-situ density anomaly for equation of state 1 to 4)

Veros.int_drhodT
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Partial derivative of dynamic enthalpy by temperature

Veros.int_drhodS
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Partial derivative of dynamic enthalpy by salinity

Veros.Nsqr
Units:1/s^2
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Square of stability frequency

Veros.Hd
Units:m^2/s^2
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Dynamic enthalpy

Veros.dHd
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Change of dynamic enthalpy due to advection

Veros.temp
Units:deg C
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Conservative temperature

Veros.dtemp
Units:deg C/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Conservative temperature tendency

Veros.salt
Units:g/kg
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Salinity

Veros.dsalt
Units:g/(kg s)
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Salinity tendency

Veros.dtemp_vmix
Units:deg C/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Change of temperature due to vertical mixing

Veros.dtemp_hmix
Units:deg C/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Change of temperature due to horizontal mixing

Veros.dsalt_vmix
Units:deg C/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Change of salinity due to vertical mixing

Veros.dsalt_hmix
Units:deg C/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Change of salinity due to horizontal mixing

Veros.dtemp_iso
Units:deg C/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Change of temperature due to isopycnal mixing plus skew mixing

Veros.dsalt_iso
Units:deg C/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Change of salinity due to isopycnal mixing plus skew mixing

Veros.forc_temp_surface
Units:m K/s
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Surface temperature flux

Veros.forc_salt_surface
Units:m g/s kg
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Surface salinity flux

Veros.flux_east
Units:?
Dimensions:xu, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Multi-purpose flux

Veros.flux_north
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yu, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Multi-purpose flux

Veros.flux_top
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Multi-purpose flux

Veros.u
Units:m/s
Dimensions:xu, yt, zt, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Zonal velocity

Veros.v
Units:m/s
Dimensions:xt, yu, zt, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Meridional velocity

Veros.w
Units:m/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Vertical velocity

Veros.du
Units:m/s
Dimensions:xu, yt, zt, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Zonal velocity tendency

Veros.dv
Units:m/s
Dimensions:xt, yu, zt, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Meridional velocity tendency

Veros.du_cor
Units:m/s^2
Dimensions:xu, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Change of u due to Coriolis force

Veros.dv_cor
Units:m/s^2
Dimensions:xt, yu, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Change of v due to Coriolis force

Veros.du_mix
Units:m/s^2
Dimensions:xu, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Change of u due to implicit vertical mixing

Veros.dv_mix
Units:m/s^2
Dimensions:xt, yu, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Change of v due to implicit vertical mixing

Veros.du_adv
Units:m/s^2
Dimensions:xu, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Change of u due to advection

Veros.dv_adv
Units:m/s^2
Dimensions:xt, yu, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Change of v due to advection

Veros.p_hydro
Units:m^2/s^2
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Hydrostatic pressure

Veros.kappaM
Units:m^2/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Vertical viscosity

Veros.kappaH
Units:m^2/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Vertical diffusivity

Veros.surface_taux
Units:m^2/s^2
Dimensions:xu, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Zonal surface wind stress

Veros.surface_tauy
Units:m^2/s^2
Dimensions:xt, yu
Type:float
Attributes:

Meridional surface wind stress

Veros.forc_rho_surface
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Surface potential density flux

Veros.psi
Units:m^3/s
Dimensions:xu, yu, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Streamfunction

Veros.dpsi
Units:m^3/s^2
Dimensions:xu, yu, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Streamfunction tendency

Veros.isle
Units:
Dimensions:isle
Type:float
Attributes:

Island number

Veros.psin
Units:m^3/s
Dimensions:xu, yu, isle
Type:float
Attributes:

Boundary streamfunction

Veros.dpsin
Units:?
Dimensions:isle, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Boundary streamfunction factor

Veros.line_psin
Units:?
Dimensions:isle, isle
Type:float
Attributes:

Boundary line integrals

Veros.boundary_mask
Units:
Dimensions:xt, yt, isle
Type:float
Attributes:

Boundary mask

Veros.line_dir_south_mask
Units:
Dimensions:xt, yt, isle
Type:float
Attributes:

Line integral mask

Veros.line_dir_north_mask
Units:
Dimensions:xt, yt, isle
Type:float
Attributes:

Line integral mask

Veros.line_dir_east_mask
Units:
Dimensions:xt, yt, isle
Type:float
Attributes:

Line integral mask

Veros.line_dir_west_mask
Units:
Dimensions:xt, yt, isle
Type:float
Attributes:

Line integral mask

Veros.K_gm
Units:m^2/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

GM diffusivity, either constant or from EKE model

Veros.K_iso
Units:m^2/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Along-isopycnal diffusivity

Veros.K_diss_v
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Kinetic energy dissipation by vertical, rayleigh and bottom friction

Veros.K_diss_bot
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Mean energy dissipation by bottom and rayleigh friction

Veros.K_diss_h
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Kinetic energy dissipation by horizontal friction

Veros.K_diss_gm
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Mean energy dissipation by GM (TRM formalism only)

Veros.P_diss_v
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Potential energy dissipation by vertical diffusion

Veros.P_diss_nonlin
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Potential energy dissipation by nonlinear equation of state

Veros.P_diss_iso
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Potential energy dissipation by isopycnal mixing

Veros.P_diss_skew
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Potential energy dissipation by GM (w/o TRM)

Veros.P_diss_hmix
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Potential energy dissipation by horizontal mixing

Veros.P_diss_adv
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Potential energy dissipation by advection

Veros.P_diss_comp
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Potential energy dissipation by compression

Veros.P_diss_sources
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Potential energy dissipation by external sources (e.g. restoring zones)

Veros.u_wgrid
Units:m/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Zonal velocity interpolated to W grid points

Veros.v_wgrid
Units:m/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Meridional velocity interpolated to W grid points

Veros.w_wgrid
Units:m/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Vertical velocity interpolated to W grid points

Conditional variables

coord_degree

Veros.xt
Units:degrees_east
Dimensions:xt
Type:float
Attributes:

Zonal (x) coordinate of T-grid point

Veros.xu
Units:degrees_east
Dimensions:xu
Type:float
Attributes:

Zonal (x) coordinate of U-grid point

Veros.yt
Units:degrees_north
Dimensions:yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Meridional (y) coordinate of T-grid point

Veros.yu
Units:degrees_north
Dimensions:yu
Type:float
Attributes:

Meridional (y) coordinate of U-grid point

not coord_degree

Veros.xt
Units:km
Dimensions:xt
Type:float
Attributes:

Zonal (x) coordinate of T-grid point

Veros.xu
Units:km
Dimensions:xu
Type:float
Attributes:

Zonal (x) coordinate of U-grid point

Veros.yt
Units:km
Dimensions:yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Meridional (y) coordinate of T-grid point

Veros.yu
Units:km
Dimensions:yu
Type:float
Attributes:

Meridional (y) coordinate of U-grid point

enable_tempsalt_sources

Veros.temp_source
Units:K/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Non-conservative source of temperature

Veros.salt_source
Units:g/(kg s)
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Non-conservative source of salt

enable_momentum_sources

Veros.u_source
Units:m/s^2 (?)
Dimensions:xu, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Non-conservative source of zonal velocity

Veros.v_source
Units:m/s^2 (?)
Dimensions:xt, yu, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Non-conservative source of meridional velocity

enable_neutral_diffusion

Veros.K_11
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Isopycnal mixing tensor component

Veros.K_13
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Isopycnal mixing tensor component

Veros.K_22
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Isopycnal mixing tensor component

Veros.K_23
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Isopycnal mixing tensor component

Veros.K_31
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Isopycnal mixing tensor component

Veros.K_32
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Isopycnal mixing tensor component

Veros.K_33
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Isopycnal mixing tensor component

Veros.Ai_ez
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt, tensor1, tensor2
Type:float
Attributes:

?

Veros.Ai_nz
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt, tensor1, tensor2
Type:float
Attributes:

?

Veros.Ai_bx
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt, tensor1, tensor2
Type:float
Attributes:

?

Veros.Ai_by
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt, tensor1, tensor2
Type:float
Attributes:

?

enable_skew_diffusion

Veros.B1_gm
Units:m^2/s
Dimensions:xt, yu, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Zonal component of GM streamfunction

Veros.B2_gm
Units:m^2/s
Dimensions:xu, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Meridional component of GM streamfunction

enable_bottom_friction_var

Veros.r_bot_var_u
Units:?
Dimensions:xu, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Zonal bottom friction coefficient

Veros.r_bot_var_v
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yu
Type:float
Attributes:

Meridional bottom friction coefficient

enable_TEM_friction

Veros.kappa_gm
Units:m^2/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Vertical diffusivity

enable_tke

Veros.tke
Units:m^2/s^2
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Turbulent kinetic energy

Veros.sqrttke
Units:m/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Square-root of TKE

Veros.dtke
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Turbulent kinetic energy tendency

Veros.Prandtlnumber
Units:
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Prandtl number

Veros.mxl
Units:m
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Mixing length

Veros.forc_tke_surface
Units:m^3/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

TKE surface flux

Veros.tke_diss
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

TKE dissipation

Veros.tke_surf_corr
Units:m^3/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Correction of TKE surface flux

enable_eke

Veros.eke
Units:m^2/s^2
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

meso-scale energy

Veros.deke
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

meso-scale energy tendency

Veros.sqrteke
Units:m/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

square-root of eke

Veros.L_rossby
Units:m
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Rossby radius

Veros.L_rhines
Units:m
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Rhines scale

Veros.eke_len
Units:m
Dimensions:xt, yt, zt
Type:float
Attributes:

Eddy length scale

Veros.eke_diss_iw
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Dissipation of EKE to internal waves

Veros.eke_diss_tke
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Dissipation of EKE to TKE

Veros.eke_bot_flux
Units:m^3/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Flux by bottom friction

enable_eke_leewave_dissipation

Veros.eke_topo_hrms
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

?

Veros.eke_topo_lam
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

?

Veros.hrms_k0
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

?

Veros.c_lee
Units:1/s
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Lee wave dissipation coefficient

Veros.eke_lee_flux
Units:m^3/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Lee wave flux

Veros.c_Ri_diss
Units:1/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Interior dissipation coefficient

enable_idemix

Veros.E_iw
Units:m^2/s^2
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Internal wave energy

Veros.dE_iw
Units:m^2/s^2
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw, timesteps
Type:float
Attributes:

Internal wave energy tendency

Veros.c0
Units:m/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Vertical internal wave group velocity

Veros.v0
Units:m/s
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Horizontal internal wave group velocity

Veros.alpha_c
Units:?
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

?

Veros.iw_diss
Units:m^2/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt, zw
Type:float
Attributes:

Internal wave dissipation

Veros.forc_iw_surface
Units:m^3/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Internal wave surface forcing

Veros.forc_iw_bottom
Units:m^3/s^3
Dimensions:xt, yt
Type:float
Attributes:

Internal wave bottom forcing